So this paper will cover the areas for the need of oral communication skills for Kenyan students, criteria that need to be improved or worked upon for the efficiency and effectiveness in oral communication. The paper also discusses the evaluation method for the effectiveness of oral communication.
Aural refers to the ear or hearing while Oral refers to the mouth or speaking. Although there is a variation in both the terms, they are interconnected. Going further for the explanation of communication which is generally messed up with language, although both the areas have their own role to play. Fred G.
One can use verbal or non-verbal communication for sending or receiving any message. Language, emails, telephones, emoticons, letters all are the sources for communication. In a nutshell, language is a link for communication not communication itself. There are various views on Oral Communication Skills. Oral communication includes face to face conversation, conversation over telephone, radio broadcasts, interviews, group discussion, meeting, conference, seminars, speeches etc.
From the above definitions, one would observe that the authors have focused mostly on verbal skills of speaking for oral communication but in fact oral communication cannot always be limited to only spoken words, the nonverbal accompanying verbal play very vital, sometimes even louder than the spoken words.
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Thus the fragrance of non-verbal cannot be ignored while discussing oral communication. The paralanguage also is integral part of communication. In this show Bollywood Celebrities are cordially invited by Karan Johar to enjoy coffee with him and they talk on some particular topics where celebrities are asked questions regarding their professional - personal lives and their childhood.
They add the flavour of effectiveness in their oral communication. Effective Oral Communication Skills consist the qualities like correctness, clarity, conciseness, completeness, consideration, correctness and courtesy which should be expressed while communicating orally and that can be done effectively by using both, verbal as well as non-verbal the skills. Speaking is free which has not any rules and regulations while oral communication skills include not only speaking but also systematic and organized speech. For instance, when a student is asked to give a presentation on any topic and the student is just reading the slides while giving presentation, it gives a message that he is speaking but not communicating orally.
The following conversation affirms the difference between only speaking and effective oral communication. Jill: Hello Vinay, I want to smoke. Vinay: You cannot do it now because we are around the temple and prayer is just about to begin. Jill: Should I go to the priest for the permission? Vinay: Yes. Try it. Jill: Excuse me, May I smoke while praying? The priest: No.
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Not at all. It will be disrespect to God. Vinay: Let me try. Good Morning, May I pray while smoking? The priest: Oh! That is very nice, dear. You can pray at any time. Formal oral Communication as well as informal oral communication has their distinguished set of advantages. There are many advantages for oral communication skills like; it saves time a lot because in rush hours in any field, one might not get time for writing the stuff, in that situation oral communication plays a vital role.
Oral Communication is also cost saving because in any industry if communication is orally, it saves, pen, paper or stamp and computer. It is also more powerful and effective than written communication skills because it includes varieties of aspects like, intensity of voice, intonation, pitch, articulation, pronunciation etc. As the research should not be subjective, it should not take place on the basis of the experience of an individual. The researchers mention here the need of oral communication skills for Kenyan students.
Teachers play vital role in the classroom but sometimes learners do not get opportunities for expressing themselves. Thus the author is concerned of this critical status of Oral Skills and recommended that the skills need to be tested at the end of the secondary school course and the language teachers emphasize the teaching of Oral Communication Skills in their academics.
Further, English is the official language in Kenya.
The project's primary aim is to improve household and community data collection on agriculture, and the LSMS-ISA modules on seed use includes a range of questions that can potentially improve the resolution of data on what farmers sow, how much they use, what price they pay, and how they source their seed at the farm-, plot-, and variety-specific levels. LSMS-ISA data are geo-referenced and designed to generate panel datasets, allowing for potentially useful analysis over both time and space.
Efforts to gauge seed industry performance might seek to collect and monitor several key indicators. Efforts to gauge seed quality are slightly more challenging, but not prohibitively so. In fact, infrastructure exists in many developing countries to assess seed quality. These same organizations and agencies often collect data on genetic purity and varietal integrity as well, although they likely tend to do so on a more ad hoc or occasional basis as part of maintenance breeding or related research activities.
That said, efforts to collect data on the physical and genetic qualities of seed can be improved by slightly augmenting the routines of public research and regulatory agencies, investing in the provision of requisite personnel and equipment, and taking advantage of the declining costs of new diagnostic tools and technologies. With investment in high throughput systems and sample collection strategies, testing procedures could be scaled to levels that provide effective monitoring of seed quality at a national level e.
And as the costs of advanced diagnostics come down, investments in high throughput genetic fingerprinting systems become equally viable, as demonstrated by Westengen et al. Furthermore, by shifting from quality control systems that rely on monitoring at all key points of the seed production process to a more straightforward system of point-of-sale inspection system, there is scope for significant efficiency gains in quality assurance.
These systems would also help address the non-trivial concern that farmers are unable to identify or misidentify the variety they are cultivating when responding to a household survey modeled along the lines of LSMS-ISA or similar surveys. Thus, efforts to compare and validate farmer-reported variety information with alternative diagnostics such as expert assessment or genetic fingerprinting can help determine the nature and direction of bias see Rabbi et al.
By combining variety-level data on marketing, adoption and seed quality with spatial and household data, there is considerable scope to improve the quality of evidence used in decision-making on research priorities, public input provision programs, incentive mechanisms, and market interventions.
Indicators such as those described above can be useful in strengthening the evidence underlying narratives formed by various seed system actors. With additional data and analysis on innovation, industry structure, and regulation—topics that are explored in the next sections—seed system actors can potentially inform and inform policymaking more effectively. In addition to quantity and quality data, precise data on cultivar improvement activities are critical to understanding the rate of innovation for a given crop which, in turn, allows analysts to gauge a seed system's capacity to deliver modern science to farmers and enhance agricultural productivity.
Other approaches rely less on single indicators and more on industry analysis, for example, in case studies of public and private innovation patterns and trends in Asia's seed markets e. However, regular and systematic data collection efforts needed to augment these approaches remain rare. See, for example, the expansive datasets posted to the Seednet India Portal, an initiative designed and developed by the National Informatics Centre Seednet, Notes: a Figures for Vietnam are only available as combined totals of all public and private releases.
Other sources of private sector data and analysis do exist, for example, McDougal in the U. However, their proprietary information products are often too costly or otherwise inaccessible to public sector analysts, regulators, or policymakers.
That said, there are readily available and low-cost ways of constructing indicators that provide a sense of seed system innovation. The most common is an index of varietal age for a given crop, which is calculated as the average age of varieties in production weighted by the quantity of production. Historically, these measures have been calculated for wheat and rice using variety-specific seed production data from state-owned seed companies see, e.
However, with additional variety-specific data on private sector production, a more complete indicator can be calculated for maize, as demonstrated in Table 3. Ragasa et al. But there is potential for expanding this analysis further using LSMS-ISA and other agricultural household surveys containing variety-specific questions mentioned earlier, but also other agricultural household surveys that contain variety-specific questions.
Information on the average age of varieties under cultivation—especially when provided in a spatially disaggregated manner and correlated with social and economic attributes of the household, farm, and market—can provide useful insight into the heterogeneity in innovation among populations targeted by the seed industry. That said, it is also difficult to obtain accurate variety-specific responses in such surveys because of poorly pre-coded lists of variety names in survey instruments, or poor recall by farmers.
This highlights the need for better survey design incorporating local knowledge, and, as mentioned earlier, the potential use of low-cost genetic diagnostics as a validation tool. Indicators of seed industry structure are another potentially important means of understanding the relationship between competition and innovation which, in turn, can inform analyses of the seed system's capacity to deliver modern science to farmers and enhance agricultural productivity. The conventional measure of market structure is often source of seed—estimated quantities and shares of seed that are purchased from formal versus informal sources disaggregated by crop and, within the formal sector, seed that are purchased from public sources versus private firms and community, farmer, or civil society organizations.
This measure provides a simple indicator of the size of the formal, commercial seed industry and its growth potential. While these indicators are useful in helping us understand the source of seed, they are often too aggregated to provide real insight into market concentration. The CR4 and CR8 ratios measure the total market share held by the four or eight largest firms in the industry, respectively.
The HHI measures the size of firms in relation to the industry and is calculated as the sum of the squared market share in percentage terms of each firm in the industry. Because the HHI takes into account the relative size and distribution of the firms in a market, it is considered a more comprehensive indicator of concentration than the CR4 and CR8 ratios Scherer and Ross, , Rhoades, These indicators may be used to measure concentration in downstream product markets using the value or volume of seed sales by firms in the seed industry Fernandez-Cornejo, , or in upstream innovation markets using the number of varieties under development or field trial applications approved Brennan et al.
While indicators from a single year can be useful to gauge concentration, trend data provide greater analytical insight e.
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An illustration is given in Table 4 for Nepal, indicating moderate concentration in country's maize market, particularly when compared to rice. A similar illustration for India's innovation market where prospective technologies are developed for the seed market is provided by Spielman et al. Their figures suggest that market concentration in India's agricultural biotechnology sector decreased between and , a trend that is likely explained by the entry of new firms into the field of biotechnology research.
More importantly, these calculations demonstrate the feasibility of measuring and characterizing concentration in both product and innovation markets. Source: Authors, based on data for Nepal from Sah A related indicator is the extent to which government participates in the seed market and how the gains and losses associated with such participation are allocated between seed companies, farmers, and other seed system actors.
Interventions include direct engagement in seed production and distribution through state-owned seed enterprises and extension services which, under certain circumstances, can impede private sector entry and participation in the seed market. More indirect interventions include the provision of specific advantages to state-owned enterprises or selected private firms, such as production subsidies, tax breaks, preferential access to improved germplasm from the public research system, well-endowed land for seed production, subsidized credit, credit guarantees, tariff exemptions on equipment imports, and other benefits that lower seed production and distribution costs.
Other interventions may take the form of direct subsidy payment to farmers purchasing seed from state-owned enterprises or selected firms. Many developing countries in Asia have dismantled the large input subsidy regimes that underwrote rapid productivity growth in food staples during the s and s, although some subsidies persist e.